GEORGE KNAPP JR

Mr. Knapp: Welcome to my online classroom!

Snow Days Assignments:  Complete on paper to turn in on return to school, or submit via Google Classroom

Day 1:  Nonfiction Reading Test; Maginot Line

Day 2:  Nonfiction Reading Test:  Mongooses

Day 3:  Nonfiction Reading Test: Trampolines

Day 4:  Main Idea 2

Day 5:  Main Idea Worksheet 4

You can find these at:  https://www.ereadingworksheets.com/free-reading-worksheets/reading-comprehension-worksheets/

Text of Worksheets Below:

Nonfiction Reading Test

Maginot Line

 

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Refer to the text to check your answers when appropriate.

 

The Maginot Line was one of the largest military structures ever built, second only to the Great Wall of China. It was a series of bunkers, forts, turrets, and obstacles that spanned more than 450 miles of France's border with Germany. Built between 1930 and 1940, it was one of the world's most impressive forts, yet it proved to be almost useless.

 

The Maginot Line was named after the man who argued for its construction, French Minister of War André Maginot.  André Maginot had fought with the French against the Germans in the First World War. Much of this conflict took place along the Western Front, which was a line of trenches across which the two sides faced one another.  Both sides dug in deep and each lost many men over little ground. Conditions were horrid for all and there was a stalemate for many years as neither side was able to move the other.

 

Maginot never forgot these awful conditions. He wanted to build a line of defenses that would give the French an advantage in a similar conflict. He feared, rightfully so, that the Germans would attack France again. Germany's population nearly doubled France's. The line of defenses that Maginot pictured would allow a smaller French army to hold off a larger German force. In 1929, Maginot convinced the French Parliament to fund his vision.

 

Though calling it a line makes it seem thin, the Maginot Line was in fact quite deep. It was fifteen miles wide at some points and varied in structure. There were outposts disguised as houses. These were manned by troops and rigged with explosives. There were antitank rails and obstacles. These were planted in the ground to prevent tanks and trucks from passing. There were bunkers armed with mounted machine guns and anti-tank guns. These were for pushing back attackers. And there were many large and small fortresses along the line. Each had mess halls, lots of supplies, and air conditioning. The Maginot line would give the French a supreme edge in the case of a head-on invasion by the Germans.  

Unfortunately for the French, the Germans did not attack head-on. They positioned a decoy army in front of the line to distract the French. While the French waited, the Germans snuck a larger force through Belgium. Belgium is France's northeastern neighbor. The French did have some defenses along their border with Belgium, but this part of the Maginot line was weak. The Germans made quick work of these defenses. Within five days of their initial attack they were well into France.

 

Once they were in France, the Germans attempted to seize the main forts along the Maginot Line. They were not successful. The forts had proved to be strong, but they failed to hold back the Germans. The Germans had taken Paris, France's capital city. Soon after the French commander ordered his men to stand down. He commanded the French defenders to leave their bases along the Maginot Line. These soldiers were then taken to POW camps.

 

While the Maginot Line did not work in the way that the French had hoped, they did benefit by having built it. Belgium and England were strong allies. England had pledged to protect Belgium. Belgium declared itself a neutral country, one which wanted to stay out of wars. When Germany invaded Belgium to bypass the Maginot Line, they violated Belgium's neutrality. This led to England entering the war sooner.


Though the Maginot Line is no longer used militarily, many of the buildings remain. Some of the forts are now wine cellars or mushroom farms. One was turned into a disco club. Today the Maginot Line is often used as a metaphor. People may refer to a failed project in which someone placed a lot of hope as a Maginot Line. Also, the Maginot Line lives on as the best-known symbol of the common saying that "generals always fight the last war."

 

 

 

1. Which of the following statements is true?

 

a. The Maginot Line provided absolutely no benefit to the French.

 

b. The Maginot Line is still used by the French army today.

 

c. Maginot's experiences during WWI led to his support for the line.

 

d. The French were betrayed by the Belgians during World War II.

 

2. Which best expresses the author's purpose in writing the fourth paragraph?

 

a. To persuade readers that the Maginot Line was not at all thin.

 

b. To inform readers of the types of defenses along the Maginot Line.

 

c. To describe what the inside of the Maginot Line looked like.

 

d. To compare and contrast defenses along the Maginot Line.

 

3. Which best describes the weakness of the Maginot Line?

 

a. It was built from cheap material and could not resist attack.

 

b. Poor screening let spies take control of the forts from within.

 

c. The line was not fortified along France's border with Belgium.

 

d. The French underestimated the power of newer German tanks.

 

4. Which of the following is a false statement?

 

a. André Maginot fought against the French in the First World War.

 

b. André Maginot served as the Minister of War for France.

 

c.  The Maginot Line is named after André Maginot.

 

d.  After WWI, André Maginot believed that Germany would attack France again.

 

5. Which best explains why André Maginot wanted to build up France's defense rather than their offense?

 

a. After WWI, France and Germany became history's greatest allies.

 

b. France needed protection from the Germans and the hostile Belgians.

 

c. Maginot feared that French commanders might invade Germany if they had the power.

 

d. France had far fewer people than Germany and needed to save manpower.

 

6. Which best defines the meaning of the word stalemate as it is used in the second paragraph?

 

a. When troops lose morale because they miss their families

 

b. When two sides are locked in a draw

 

c. When breathing is made difficult by foul odors

 

d. When one side has a large advantage over the other

 

7. Which best expresses the main idea of the last paragraph of this text?

 

a. It describes how the Maginot Line is still used today.

 

b. It restates the main points of the text.

 

c. It discusses how the French used the Maginot Line during World War II.

 

d. It explains how the Maginot Line is used as a symbol.

 

8. How did the French lose control of the Maginot Line?

 

a. The Germans overtook the fortresses with military power.

 

b. The Germans tunneled into the fortresses using new technology.

 

c. The French were starved out of the fortresses by German siege.

 

d. The French surrendered the fortresses.

 

9. Which was not part of Germany's strategy to invade France in World War II?

 

a. Position a decoy force in front of the Maginot Line

 

b. Sneak troops into France by tunneling underneath the Maginot Line

 

c. Bring a large army through Belgium

 

d. Move very quickly

 

10. Which title best expresses the main idea of this text?

 

a. Undefeatable: How the Maginot Line Became the World's Strongest Fortress

 

b. André Maginot: France's Greatest Patriot

 

c. Strong as the Weakest Link: The Mighty Maginot Wall and Its Shortcomings

 

d. Blood Feud: The History of War Between France and Germany

 

1. What is meant by the last line of the text? How did the Maginot Line serve as an example of this saying? Support your explanation with evidence from the text.

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

2. What lesson can readers learn from this text? Cite evidence from the passage to support your response.

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

3. How did André Maginot's experiences in World War I influence his decision to push for the Maginot Line?

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 


 

Nonfiction Reading Test

Mongooses

 

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Refer to the text to check your answers when appropriate.

 

If you plan on going to Hawaii, don't bring any pets. Hawaiians are wary of letting in foreign animals. Your beloved Rex or Fi-fi could spend up to 120 days in quarantine. They have strict rules for importing animals. They carefully screen all incoming pets. Who could blame them? They've had problems with new animals in the past.

 

The black rat was introduced to Hawaii in the 1780s. These ugly suckers originated in Asia, but they migrated to Europe in the 1st century. Since then they've snuck on European ships and voyaged the world with them. These rats carry many diseases including the plague. They are also good at surviving and tend to displace native species. That means that after they infest an area, there will be fewer birds and more black rats. Most people prefer living around birds.

 

Since their arrival in Hawaii, black rats have been pests. They've feasted on sea turtle eggs. They've eaten tree saplings, preventing trees from being reforested.  And they've been a leading cause in the extinction of more than 70 species of Hawaiian birds. They love to climb trees to eat bird eggs. They also compete with forest birds for food, such as snails, insects, and seeds.

 

Perhaps more troubling, black rats threaten humans. They spread germs and incubate disease. They are a vector for more than 40 deadly illnesses. Some think that rat-borne diseases have killed more people than war in the last 1,000 years. Rats also eat our food. They eat more than 20% of the world's farmed food. And that's why the mongoose was brought to Hawaii.

 

 

During the mid 1800s, the Hawaiian sugar industry was thriving. Americans were just realizing that they loved sugar. Hawaii was pretty much the only place in America where one could grow sugarcane. But those filthy vermin were tearing up the fields. Black rats were destroying entire crops. What's a plantation owner to do? The answer is simple. Import an animal known to kill rats. What could go wrong with that? In 1883 plantation owners imported 72 mongooses and began breeding them.

 

People revere the mongoose in its homeland of India. They are often kept tame in Indian households. Mongooses feed on snakes, rats, and lizards, creatures that most people dislike. They are also cute and furry. And they kill deadly cobras. What's not to love? Sadly, India is a much different place than Hawaii.

 

When the mongooses got to Hawaii, they did not wipe out the rats as plantation owners hoped. Instead, they joined them in ravaging the birds, lizards, and small plants that were native to Hawaii. It's not that the mongooses became friends with the rats. They still ate a bunch of them. But mongooses are not too different from most other animals: they go for the easy meal. In Hawaii they had a choice. Pursue the elusive black rat or munch on turtle eggs while tanning on the beach. Most took the easy route.


Now Hawaii has two unwanted guests defacing the natural beauty. The Hawaiians have learned their lesson. Talks of bringing in mongoose-eating gorillas have been tabled. So don't get uptight when they don't welcome your cat Mittens with open arms.  They're trying to maintain a delicate ecosystem here.

 

 

 

 

1. Based on the text, which best explains how black rats were introduced to Hawaii?

 

a. The native Hawaiians imported them to solve a problem with their crops.

 

b. The Asians brought them to Hawaii when they first arrived.

 

c. The Europeans brought them on their ships.

 

d. The rats were able to swim to Hawaii from Asia.

 

2. Which best defines the word originate as it was used in the second paragraph?

 

a. To come from a place                                             b. To go to a place

 

c. To become independent                                         d. To wander the world

 

3. Which event happened first?

 

a. The mongoose was introduced to Hawaii

 

b. The black rat was introduced to Hawaii

 

c. The black rat migrated to Europe

 

d. Plantation owners bred mongooses

 

4. Which statement would the author most likely disagree with?

 

a. Black rats threaten many creatures native to Hawaii.

 

b. Mongooses threaten many creatures native to Hawaii.

 

c. Mongooses were brought to Hawaii intentionally.

 

d. The only reason people dislike rats is because they are ugly.

 

5. Which best express the author's main purpose in writing this text?

 

a. To persuade readers to protect the endangered mongoose

 

b. To describe the habits and hazards of the black rat

 

c. To inform readers about species that have invaded Hawaii

 

d. To entertain readers with tales of a mongoose's adventures

 

6. Which best expresses the main idea of the sixth paragraph?

 

a. This paragraph is about Indian culture and wildlife.

 

b. This paragraph is about the mongoose's role in Indian society.

 

c. This paragraph is about the lifecycle of the mongoose.

 

d. This paragraph is about how mongooses migrated to India.

 

7. Which statement is false according to information in the text?

 

a. Rats eat lots of vegetation and crops.

 

b. Mongooses eat sea turtle eggs.

 

c. Rats climb trees and eat bird eggs.

 

d. Mongooses have spread more than 40 diseases.

8. Which best explains why plantation owners imported mongooses to Hawaii?

 

a. Mongooses eat rats.                                                b. Mongooses are fuzzy and adorable.

 

c. Mongooses make great household pets.                 d. Mongooses kill deadly cobras.

 

9. Which best defines the word revere as it is used in the sixth paragraph?

 

a. To dislike someone or something                           b. To respect someone or something

 

c. To hunt someone or something                               d. To get rid of someone or something

 

10. Which title best expresses the main idea of this text?

 

a. Travel Procedures: Getting in and out of Hawaii with Pets

 

b. Unwanted: The Journey of the Black Rat to Hawaii

 

c. Uncovered: What the Real Rikki-Tikki-Tavi is Like

 

d. Backfired: Solving Problems with Problems in Hawaii

 

Long Response

 

1. The mongoose is praised in Indian culture and hated in Hawaiian culture. Why is this animal perceived differently in these environments? Cite information from the text to support your response. Explain your evidence thoroughly.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

2. What lesson can readers learn from this text? Cite several examples of text to support your argument. Explain your support clearly.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

3. Why did the mongoose fail to remove the black rat population from Hawaii? Use evidence from the text to support your argument. Explain your evidence and how it connects to your argument.

 

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 


Nonfiction Reading Test

Trampolines

 

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Refer to the text to check your answers when appropriate.

 

What's more fun than standing still? Jumping up and down on a springy piece of fabric! This activity is known as trampolining and it's sweeping the nation.

 

The idea of trampolining is ancient. Eskimos have been tossing each other in the air using walrus skin for thousands of years. Firemen began using a life net to catch people jumping from buildings in 1887. And in the early 1900s, circus performers began bouncing off of netting to amuse audiences. These weren't the same as today's trampolines, but they show that the idea has been bouncing around for a long time.

 

A tumbler named George Nissan and his coach Larry Griswold made the first modern trampoline in 1936. They got the idea by watching trapeze artists bouncing off of a tight net at the circus. The two men experimented with different fabrics and designs. They found a winner when they stretched a piece of canvas across a steel frame and held it in place with springs. They named their device after the Spanish word trampolín, which means diving board.

 

At first Nissan and Griswold used their device to train tumblers. The piece of training equipment was a lot of fun. They realized that everyone could enjoy their trampoline, not just tumblers. The men wanted to share their idea with the whole world. In 1942 they began making trampolines to sell to the public.

 

Trampolines may be fun, but they can also be dangerous. Experts estimate that more than 100,000 people hurt themselves while using one each year. Clubs and gyms use large safety nets and rubber padding to make it safer. Most trampoline injuries happen at home. Since trampolines are more affordable than ever, injuries are even more common.   

These injuries happen for many reasons. People may bounce too high and land off of the trampoline or onto the springs. From the peak of the bounce, this can be a fall of 13 feet or more.  Ouch. Injuries also happen when many people are jumping at the same time. Jumpers may collide and cause one another to land in strange ways.  Lots of people have broken bones in this way. Perhaps the worst injuries happen when untrained people try to do flips. Landing on your neck or head can paralyze or even kill you.

 

But don't let all that bad news keep you down. There are many things that you can do to practice safe trampolining. You can cover the springs with special pads so that people's limbs are less likely to get stuck in them. You can surround your trampoline with a net so that people don't fall off of it. You can limit bouncers to one at a time. This will prevent collision injuries. Perhaps most importantly, you should never flip on a trampoline without professional guidance. You are much less likely to get hurt on a trampoline if you do these things.


Trampolines have been around for a while now. They have brought a lot of joy to many people. There is no feeling quite like soaring up in the air and then free-falling. Trampolines can also be a good source of exercise and activity. They can help people improve their balance and aerial moves. But they can also be deadly. Be sure that you are practicing safety while having a good time. Happy bouncing!

 

 

 

 

1. Which statement would the author most likely disagree with?

 

a. The basic idea of a trampoline has been around for a long time.

 

b. Nissan and Griswold owe much of their success to circus performers.

 

c. Most club and gym trampolines are safer than most home trampolines.

 

d. Trampolines are dangerous and not much can be done to make them safer.

 

2. Which best describes the main idea in the second paragraph?

 

a. It explains how Eskimo have used walrus skins like trampolines for a long time.

 

b. It describes activities similar to trampolining that came first.

 

c. It compares and contrasts how different groups have used trampolines.

 

d. It discusses how trampolining is ancient.

 

3. Which of the following events happened first?

 

a. Firemen begin using life nets to catch people jumping from buildings.

 

b. Nissan and Griswold begin selling trampolines to the public.

 

c. Circus performers begin using netting to perform tricks.

 

d. Nissan and Griswold invent the modern trampoline.

 

4. Which is not cited as a cause of trampoline related injuries?

 

a. Colliding with other bouncers                                b. Bouncing into low hanging objects

 

c. Jumping off of the trampoline                                 d. Landing a flip incorrectly

 

5. Which best explains why trampoline injuries are more likely to happen at home?

 

a. Home trampolines get rained on and become very slippery.

 

b. Home trampolines are cheaply made and fall apart during use.

 

c. Home trampolines often lack proper safety equipment.

 

d. Most people are on their best behavior when they leave the home.

 

6. Which best describes the structure of the text in the sixth paragraph?

 

a. Cause and effect                                                     b. Compare and contrast

 

c. Chronological order                                                d. Descriptive writing

 

7. How does the purpose of the text switch after the fourth paragraph?

 

a. It goes from describing the uses of a trampoline to the dangers.

 

b. It shifts from explaining the history of the trampoline to health benefits.

 

c. It moves from Nissan and Griswold's life story to how trampolines are used today.

 

d. It changes from discussing the origins of the trampoline to the risks.

 

8. Which statement would the author most likely agree with?

 

a. Trampolines are extremely dangerous and should be banned.

 

b. Nissan and Griswold stole the idea for the trampoline from the eskimos.

 

c. You should take turns when jumping on a trampoline with friends.

 

d. You'll never learn to flip if you don't start practicing by yourself.

9. Which best expresses the author's purpose in writing the seventh paragraph?

 

a. He is persuading readers to stay off of trampolines.

 

b. He is telling readers how to prevent trampoline injuries.

 

c. He is describing what a modern trampoline looks like.

 

d. He is informing readers about the risks of trampolining.

 

10. Which of the following is not a main idea in this text?

 

a. Trampoline-like activities have been around for a long time.

 

b. Trampolining can be dangerous if practiced unsafely.

 

c. Trampolining is a great way to reduce stress and anxiety.

 

d. Modern trampolines were invented by Nissan and Griswold.

 

Long Response

 

1. If you were buying a new trampoline, what advice do you believe that the author would give you? Refer to the text to support your response.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

2. Should George Nissan and Larry Griswold be credited as the inventors of the trampoline? Why or why not? Use evidence from the text to support your position.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

3. Your school is considering building a large trampoline and using it during gym class. Are you for this initiative or against it? Clearly state your position and argue it in two or three paragraphs. Cite text from the passage to support your response.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

 


Main Idea 2

 

Directions: Read each passage and ask yourself, "What is the author doing in this paragraph?"  Write your answer in the summary box and then think of an appropriate title for the passage based on the main idea of the passage.

 

1.  Being a clown isn't all fun and games. Rodeo clowns expose themselves to great danger every time they perform. When cowboys dismount or bulls buck them off, rodeo clowns jump in front of the bulls and motion wildly to get their attention. In this way rodeo clowns provide an alternate target, and in doing so protect the rider. Of course, this is a very dangerous thing to do. So you see, sometimes clowning around can be serious business.

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence.  Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

2.  Wolverines are medium sized mammals. They weigh no more than 50 lbs. Yet they have earned their reputation for ferocity by killing prey many times their size. But why do they get in so many fights? The reason why wolverines have so many conflicts with other animals (including wolves, cougars, and even bears) is probably because of the wolverine's preferred hunting style. Rather than chasing down or tricking its prey like most hunters, the wolverine prefers to take its meals directly from other hunters. So while a polar bear or a lone wolf might be enjoying a hard earned carcass, a hungry wolverine may try to take his lunch. As you might imagine, this style of hunting get the wolverine in plenty of fights.

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence.  Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

3.   Sometime in December of 1891, Dr. James Naismith was teaching gym at the YMCA College in Springfield, Massachusetts. It was raining, and Dr. Naismith was trying to keep his students active. He wanted them playing a vigorous game that would keep them moving. He rejected a few ideas that were too rough. Then Naismith had his breakthrough. He wrote out the rules for a game with peach baskets fixed to ten-foot elevated tracks. Naismith's students played against one another, passing the ball around and shooting it into the peach baskets. Dribbling wasn't a part of the original game. Also it took a while to realize that the game would run more smoothly if the bottoms of the baskets were removed. But this game grew to be one of the most popular sports in America today. Can you guess which one?

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence.  Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

4.  What's that humming sound? Could it be the hummingbird, the only bird capable of backward flight? Hummingbirds have many unique flight habits that distinguish them from other birds. Most birds flap their wings up and down to fly, but the hummingbird moves its wings forward and backward very rapidly in a figure eight pattern. This allows the hummingbird to hover in position. They can also fly upside down and move about very rapidly.  Other birds have to push off with their feet to begin flying and work their ways up to their top speeds. The hummingbird can both start flying at maximum speed and stop flying instantaneously. Once you've seen a hummingbird in flight, it's unlikely that you'll mistake them for another bird. 

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence.  Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

5.  Remember, if something is worth doing, it is worth doing correctly. That said, the key to making perfect cookies is merely a matter of preparation and precision. To begin with, read your cookie recipe thoroughly before baking. Make sure that you have all the necessary ingredients before you continue. Next, use good tools and utensils. Sometimes, the craftsperson is only as good as his or her tools. By using good tools you minimize mistakes and improve the quality of your product. Last, use top quality ingredients. Unlike characters in fairytales, you can't turn lead into gold. If you use poor quality materials, you'll create inferior products. So, to make perfect cookies you should use the highest quality materials available. Bon appetite! 

 

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence.  Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

6.  You might think that all automobile fuels are the same, but they aren't. Automobiles can run on one of three types of fuel: gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel. All these fuels are burned inside of the engine, which creates the heat and energy that is used to power the car. But there are important differences between these fuels. Gasoline and diesel are more common than biodiesel. But each burns differently. Diesel fuel is heavier and less flammable than gasoline, so it has to be compressed before it will burn. Gasoline may be lighter than diesel, but both fuels are made from crude oil. On the other hand, biodiesel fuel is made from vegetables. Both biodiesel and diesel fuels must be burned in diesel engines, which only use diesel fuel. If gasoline is pumped into a diesel engine, it will have to be pumped out. These fuels may look pretty similar at the gas station, but remember that there are important differences between them or it may cost you.

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence.  Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

Main Idea Worksheet 4

 

Directions: Read each passage and ask yourself, “What is the author doing in this paragraph?” Write your answer in the summary box and then think of an appropriate title for the passage based on the main idea of the passage.

 

1. It’s hard to imagine what things were like before there was money, but such a time did exist. During these times people exchanged goods using the barter system. The word barter means to trade. People using the barter system traded things instead of buying and selling them. So if you were a rice farmer, you would trade your rice with many people to get all of the things that you wanted or needed. Unfortunately, the people from whom you needed things might not want your rice. Isn’t it nice to just go to the store and buy candy instead of having to trade rice for it?
 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

2. Money is pretty old but nobody knows exactly how old it is. Perhaps the oldest evidence of people using money is in the Code of Ur-Nammu. The Code of Ur-Nammu is a system of laws written around 2050 BC. That’s like 4,000 years ago! Many of Ur-Nammu’s laws carry fines, such as one stating that if a man is proven innocent of sorcery, his accuser must pay 3 shekels. This ancient document shows me two things: Ur-Nammu didn’t tolerate false witch-hunts, and money is very old.

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

3. One particular problem that the U.S. faced when rebelling against the British was currency. While under British control, colonists mainly used British paper money and foreign coins, but after forming a new nation the Americans needed their own currency, so they created Continental currency. Congress issued over 240 million Continental Dollars during the Revolution. Unfortunately, these dollars soon dropped in value, giving rise to the popular expression, “not worth a Continental.” By the end of 1778, Continentals were worth 1/5th of their face value. By 1780, they were worth 1/40th. In the 1790s, the U.S. bought back Continentals for 1% of their printed value. One reason for this decline was economic warfare. During the war the British hired artists to counterfeit Continental Dollars. Large amounts of these counterfeit notes were funneled into the American economy and the value of the Continental Dollar crashed. When people start complaining about today’s inflation rates, I tell them about Continentals. 

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

4. Hyperinflation refers to when the value of money drops rapidly. During World War I, Germany paid for the war by borrowing. The German Mark steadily lost value as the war went on and German people could buy less and less. After losing the war, Germany was required to make large payments to the Allies. They paid all of the debts that they could by printing more money. Soon the German Mark was worthless. When the war had started, the U.S. Dollar was worth around four German Marks. By November of 1923, one U.S. Dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German Marks. At this point the money had more value as a fuel than as a currency, and people burned it to stay warm.  

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

5. Counterfeiting is the act of making phony money that looks official. It is a very old crime but recent advances in the printer industry have made it possible for even amateurs to produce decent counterfeits. Fortunately, there are a number of ways that you can detect counterfeits. The first and most telling inspection is to pay attention to how the money feels. It is difficult to reproduce the texture of real money. If the money feels suspect, look carefully at the microprinting on the bill. Many features along the portrait and border of a genuine bill contain writing that is too small to reproduce in most printers. If you are still suspicious, hold the bill up to the light and look for the strip that says the value of the bill. With a little diligence, you can keep yourself from becoming a victim of this rising trend.

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

6. Currencies have changed and developed over the course of history, but one of the newest forms of payment doesn’t even really exist, at least in the physical world. Bitcoin is an entirely digital currency. Users of Bitcoin send payments to one another over computer networks. These payments are nonrefundable. In other words, once the money is sent, you can’t get it back. The value of a Bitcoin has risen rapidly since its introduction in 2009, when each Bitcoin was worth around 30 cents. At the time of this writing, it would cost you around 900 U.S. Dollars to get one Bitcoin. That’s quite a jump.  On the downside, if the value of Bitcoin ever crashes, you won’t be able to heat your home by burning it.

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

7. As young Americans mature into adults, they are tempted by the allure of easy credit.  Credit card companies attempt to ensnare young people by giving away “free” headphones or sports towels in return for completing credit applications. Many of these young people go on to accumulate debt through undisciplined spending.  They pay much more than the original loan because they are charged a high rate of interest and it takes them years to repay their debts.  It is best to avoid this debt prison altogether.  

 

Summarize this paragraph in one sentence. Be specific and clearly explain the main idea.

 

 

 

 

An appropriate title: _____________________________________________________________

 

GEORGE KNAPP JR

Upcoming Events

Contact GEORGE KNAPP

Classroom Number:
130
School Phone:
501-654-2242-130
Cell Phone:
501-268-4592